This story, however, arose from forged entries in Cartwright's diary which were inserted after his death. One, mostly English, asserted that baseball evolved from a game of English origin (probably rounders); the other, almost entirely American, said that baseball was an American invention (perhaps derived from the game of one-ol'-cat). This work fell to my hands, and the code I then formulated is substantially that in use today. After that, Abner became a civil war hero, and the game had become America’s favorite national pastime. According to one legend, milkmaids played stoolball while waiting for their husbands to return from the fields. Until not too terribly long ago, if you asked most people about the origins of baseball, they’d say “a man named Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown, New York in 1839.” Expensive parking is an old baseball tradition. Folk games differed over time, place, and culture, resulting in similar yet variant forms. References to a game actually called "cricket" appeared around 1550. Sullivan.[a]. The myth that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839 was once widely promoted and widely believed. In 1857 Adams expanded on the Knickerbocker Rules and created a more formal version, known as the Laws of Base Ball during the first convention of all baseball players. The inventor of Baseball Alexander Cartwright. [b] Another significant rule, the 15th, specified three outs to an inning for the first time instead of "one out, all out" or "all out, all out." Answer Save. The ball used in baseball was invented by Alexander Joy Cartwright. In 1828, William Clarke of London published the second edition of The Boy’s Own Book, which included the earliest known mention of a game called "rounders," and contains under that heading the first printed description in English of a bat and ball base-running game played on a diamond.[15]:p. So he formed a group, The Mill’s Commission, to look into baseball’s beginning. That baseball is based on older English games such as stool-ball, trap-ball and tip-cat with possible influences from cricket is difficult to dispute. Others give credit to Colonel William A. Cutler, who may have invented the familiar stitching in 1858 and sold it to one of the first baseball manufacturers, William Harwood. The earliest published author to muse on the origin of baseball, John Montgomery Ward, was suspicious of the often-parroted claim that rounders is the direct ancestor of baseball, as both were formalized in the same time period. According to Major League Baseball's official historian, John Thorn, "Cartwright’s plaque in the Baseball Hall of Fame declares he set the bases 90 feet apart and established nine innings as a game and nine players as a team. The Doubleday as baseball’s inventor story was popularized by Al Spalding, a former major league player turned sporting goods magnate. "Stob-ball" and "stow-ball" were regional games similar to stoolball. There is a popular myth that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown, New York, in 1839.This story has been spread far and wide over the last century or so, and there is both a … Forums. The Mills Commission concluded that Doubleday had invented baseball in Cooperstown, New York in 1839; that Doubleday had invented the word "baseball", designed the diamond, indicated fielders' positions, and written the rules. The ball was made of a hard rubber center, tightly wrapped with yarn, and in the hands of a strong-armed man it was a terrible missile, and sometimes had fatal results when it came in contact with a delicate part of the player’s anatomy…, We had to have a good outdoor game, and as the games then in vogue didn't suit us we decided to remodel three-cornered cat and make a new game. [11] Like baseball, the object is to strike a pitched ball with a bat and then run a circuit of four bases to score. Generally speaking, "round-ball" was the most usual name in New England, "base-ball" in New York, and "town-ball" in Pennsylvania and the South. Doubleday himself never made such a claim; he left many letters and papers, but they contain no description of baseball or any suggestion that he considered himself prominent in the game's history. This is the first known instance of the word baseball in print.[16]. Played between two teams, the game of Baseball is quite interesting and challenging. They all involve throwing a ball to a batsman who attempts to "bat" it away and run safely to a base, while the opponent tries to put the batter-runner out when liable ("liable [to be put out]" is the baseball term for unsafe). There is evidence that these rules had been experimented with and used by New York ball clubs for some time; Cartwright, in his 1848 capacity as club secretary (and a bookseller), was merely the first to have them printed up. Graves' story was patently false. Alexander Joy Cartwright invented the modern form of baseball that we see today. There were also games (e.g. After three years, Doubleday was anointed as baseball's inventor, … The Knickerbocker Rules describe a game that they had been playing for some time. In at least one version of the game, teams pitched to themselves, runners went around the bases in the opposite direction of today's game, much like in the Nordic brännboll, and players could be put out by being hit with the ball. In a return match held August 17, 1858, and played at the Fashion Course in the Corona neighborhood of Queens, a slightly smaller crowd cheered Brooklyn to a win over New York and Hoboken by a score of 29–8. One point undisputed by historians is that the modern professional major leagues that began in the 1870s developed directly from the amateur urban clubs of the 1840s and 1850s, not from the pastures of small towns such as Cooperstown. Evolution from the so-called "Knickerbocker Rules" to the current rules is fairly well documented. Who invented baseball? [10][12] However, in the 19th century rounders was a popular sport for grown men, as Irish Rounders remains today, and for much of the Victorian period regimental teams played for an Army championship. [b] Notably, Gutsmuths is the earliest author to explicitly mention the use of a bat, although in this case it was a flat wooden paddle about 18 inches long, swung one-handed. town ball, roundball] was a boy’s game, and did well enough for slight youngsters, but it was a dangerous game for powerful men, because the ball was thrown to put out a man between bases, and it had to hit the runner to put him out. Gutsmuth included a diagram of the field which was very similar to that of town ball. We first organized what we called the Gotham Baseball Club. 6 Answers. An old English game called "base" or "prisoners' base", described by George Ewing at Valley Forge, was apparently not much like baseball. The game was invented some time in 1845. [43], If Wheaton's account, given in 1887, was correct, then most of the innovations credited to Cartwright were, in fact, the work of the Gothams before the Knickerbockers were formed, including a set of written rules. Further evidence of a more collective model of New York baseball's development, and doubts as to Cartwright's role as "inventor", came with the 2004 discovery of a newspaper interview with William R. Wheaton, a founding member of the Gotham Baseball Club in 1837 and first vice president of the Knickerbocker Club, and co-author of its rules, eight years later. "Two ol' cat" was the same game as one ol' cat, except that there were two batters; a diagram preserved in the New York Public Library is labeled "Four Old Cat" and depicts a square field like a baseball diamond and four batters, one at each corner. Ward", "Diagrams for playing Your old cat, and Town ball, Round ball or Baseball. Debate on baseball's origins had raged for decades, heating up in the first years of the 20th century, due in part to a 1903 essay baseball historian Henry Chadwick wrote in Spalding's Official Baseball Guide stating that baseball gradually evolved from English game of “rounders”. [21][22]. The first baseball game was also umpired by Alexander Joy Cartwright. Besides usually (but not always) being played on a 'rectangle' rather than a 'diamond,' with the batter positioned between fourth and first base (there were also variants with three and five bases), it was played by various numbers of players from six to over thirty a side, in most but not all versions there was no foul territory and every batted ball was in play,[e] innings were determined on the basis of either "all out/all out" as in cricket or "one out/all out", in many all out/all out versions there was an opportunity for the last batter to earn another inning by some prodigious feat of hitting, pitching was overhand (underhand pitching was mandatory in "New York" baseball until the 1880s),[f] and, perhaps most significantly, a baserunner was put out by "soaking" or hitting him with a thrown ball, just as in French poison-ball and Gutsmuth's englische Base-ball. [a], Two years later the following notice appeared in the July 13, 1825 edition of the Delhi (New York) Gazette: "The undersigned, all residents of the new town of Hamden, with the exception of Asa Howland, who has recently removed into Delhi, challenge an equal number of persons of any town in the County of Delaware, to meet them at any time at the house of Edward B. Chace, in said town, to play the game of Bass-Ball, for the sum of one dollar each per game.". stool-ball, trap-ball) which involved no running at all. The first published rules of baseball were written in 1845 for a New York base ball club called the Knickerbockers. In character, Doubleday was bookish and sedentary, with no observable interest in athletics of any sort. Although confined mainly to the cities of Cardiff, Newport and Liverpool, the sport boasts an annual international game between representative teams from the two countries. Relevance. In the United States, the man most credited with inventing baseball is Alexander Cartwright. The game was more like a fancy game of team "tag", although it did share the concept of places of safety, bases, with baseball. In the earliest versions, the object was primarily to defend the stool. Successfully defending the stool counted for one point, and the batter was out if the ball hit the stool. ", The Olympics, however, played their first games across the river in Camden, NJ, due to a Philadelphia ordinance against ball games. 192 The following year, the book was published in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1865 the grounds hosted a championship match between the Mutual Club of New York and the Atlantic Club of Brooklyn that was attended by an estimated 20,000 fans and captured in the Currier & Ives lithograph The American National Game of Base Ball. He invented the game which is known as Baseball in Cooperstown, New York during the summers in 1839. The rules themselves were written by the two-man Committee on By-Laws, Vice-President William R. Wheaton and Secretary William H. Tucker. "[a] Although A Little Pretty Pocket-Book first appeared eleven years earlier, no copies of the first or other early editions have surfaced to date, only the tenth and later editions from 1760 forward. What the target originally was in stoolball is not certain; it was possibly a tree stump, since "stob" and "stow" all mean stump in some local dialects. In 1774, there was the earliest publication of this game in England. The Mills Commission, at the other extreme, created an "official" and entirely fictional All-American version attributing the game's invention to Abner Doubleday in 1839 at Cooperstown, New York (current site of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum). The satisfying ‘thwack’ as heavy ball meets wooden bat; the lush green field dotted with coloured cones, shining under the British summer sun; the grass-stained knees as you slide valiantly past fourth base. The earliest known reference to stoolball is in a 1330 poem by William Pagula, who recommended to priests that the game be forbidden within churchyards. At a preliminary meeting [of the Knickerbockers], it was suggested that as it was apparent they would soon be driven from Murray Hill, some suitable place should be obtained in New Jersey, where their stay could be permanent; accordingly, a day or two afterwards, enough to make a game assembled at Barclay street ferry, crossed over, marched up the road, prospecting for ground on each side, until they reached the Elysian Fields, where they "settled."[45]. Graves shortly thereafter murdered his wife and was committed to an asylum for the insane. Basically, from the English play of rounder, game baseball was adapted. Spalding felt adamant that baseball was born in the United States. Another early folk game was "dog and cat" (or "cat and dog"), which probably originated in Scotland. Very broadly speaking, these games can be roughly divided into forms of longball, where the batter ran out to a single point or line and back, as in cricket, and roundball, where there was a circuit of multiple bases. This story is entirely untrue because Abner Doubleday, in 1839, was still at the West Point and it was never claimed, to have anything, by him, to do with baseball. [17] The English lawyer William Bray wrote in his diary that he had played a game of baseball on Easter Monday 1755 in Guildford, also in Surrey. The ground that is used to play Baseball is in the shape of a diamond with a circuit made on the edges for demarcation for bases. On June 3, 1953, Congress officially credited Cartwright with inventing the modern game of baseball. This "bat and ball," at least, appears very clearly to be a form of early baseball/roundball/townball. In 1852, the Eagle Club published their rules, and two years later the Knickerbockers, Eagles and Gothams met and agreed to a uniform set of rules to govern all three clubs, at least in match play, which for the first time set the pitching distance (15 paces). The game of "cat" (or "cat-ball") had many variations but usually there was a pitcher, a catcher, a batter and fielders, but there were no sides (and often no bases to run). Doubleday himself never made such a claim; he left many letters and papers, but they contain no description of baseball or any suggestion that he considered himself prominent in the game's history. In 1899, Spiru Haret, the minister of education decided that oină was to be played in schools in physical education classes. It was printed in Paris in 1810 and lays out the rules for La balle empoisonnée ("poisoned ball"), in which there were two teams of eight to ten players, four bases (one called home), a pitcher, a batter, "soaking" and flyball outs; however, the ball apparently was struck by the hand. The 10th rule prescribed foul lines and foul balls and the 18th forbade runners advancing on a foul, unlike the "Massachusetts game" in which all batted balls were in play. This game started a new and uniquely American tradition. Certainly, baseball is related to cricket and rounders, but exactly how, or how closely, has not been established. These games tended to be played by working classes, peasants, and children. [11] A batter is out if the ball is caught; if the base to which they are running to is touched with the ball; or if, while running, they are touched with the ball by a fielder. His New York Timesobituary makes no mention of baseball, nor does a … All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, National Association of Base Ball Players, National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, "Mitul oinei: Inventia sportului national (I)", "The Seventeenth Century Game of Cricket: A Reconstruction of the Game", "The oldest international contest of them all", "Save rounders! AAU president and Commission secretary Sullivan was Spalding's personal factotum. In the diagram there is a type-over that makes the first letter of the name of the game hard to distinguish. 156, A 1744 book in England by children's publisher John Newbery called A Little Pretty Pocket-Book includes a woodcut of a game similar to three-base stoolball or rounders and a rhyme entitled "Base-Ball". These games had no standard documented rules and instead were played according to historical customs. Games believed to have been similar to cricket had developed by the 13th century. [37] That same year the rival Athletic Club traveled to Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania for a challenge match in which they competed against the local club in both town ball (the home team prevailed 45–43), and "New York" baseball (Athletic won easily, 34–2). The baseball stadiums get filled with people within seconds when there is a league match. However there is no consensus as to the rules that were used or whether it can be considered the first "baseball" game. The author, Alexander Joy Cartwright, is one person commonly known as "the father of baseball." Versions of baseball rules and descriptions of similar games have been found in publications that significantly predate his alleged invention in 1839. The convention also defined the distance between the bases unambiguously as 90 feet, and specified nine-man teams. [39] To end argument, speculation, and innuendo, Spalding organized the Mills Commission in 1905. Doubleday died in 1893, long after baseball had become a professional sport of national scope, so if he had invented it, you figure he or someone who knew him would’ve said at … This popularity was not only in the states but also in several places across the world. The name "oină" was originally "hoina",[3] and is derived from the Cuman word oyn "game" (a cognate of Turkish oyun). Very similar instances were recorded by John Montgomery Ward in his 1888 book Base-Ball: How to Become a Player, with the Origins, History and Explanation of the Game, in which he recounts several elderly men recalling having played as boys, covering a span from the 1790s to the 1830s; among others, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. recalled playing at Harvard, from which he graduated in 1829. On October 21, 1845 the New York Ball Club played the second of their three games against a Brooklyn team there, the series being the first known inter-club baseball games. In 1755, a book entitled The Card by John Kidgell, in volume 1 on page 9, mentions baseball: "the younger Part of the Family, perceiving Papa not inclined to enlarge upon the matter, retired to an interrupted Party at Base-Ball (an infant Game, which as it advances in its teens, improved into Fives). An 18th-century poem depicts men and women playing together (the women using their aprons to catch batted balls), and it and other references associate the game especially with the Easter season.[2]:pp. The Invention In 1845, Alexander Joy Cartwright from New York, first came up with the idea of the game and the baseball field. During and after the American Civil War (1861–1865), the movements of soldiers and exchanges of prisoners helped spread the game. Players take turns to play and hit the ball. In stoolball, one player throws the ball at a target while another player defends the target. The story promoted as the “invention” of baseball by Abner Doubleday, a Civil War hero for the Union, has largely been discredited. In 1846, the New York Knickerbocker Baseball Club played the first-ever official game of the baseball against one of the teams of the players of cricket. [30][31] A firsthand account and the rules of the game were recalled by Dr. Adam E. Ford, who had witnessed the game as a six-year-old boy, in an 1886 issue of The Sporting Life magazine in Denver, Colorado; he described the game in remarkable detail, including the precise distances between the irregular bases and how the ball was constructed. Go. [36] The same sheet of paper shows a diagram of a square – 60 feet per side with the base side having in its middle the "Home Goal", "Catcher", and "Striker", and with the corners marked as "1st Goal", "2nd Goal", "3rd Goal", and "4th Goal" as you travel counter-clockwise around the square. There has been a myth that a young man whose name is Abner Doubleday, invented the game, baseball during the summertime in Cooperstown, New York in 1839. In 1858, clubs from the association played a cross-town, all-star series pitting Brooklyn clubs against clubs from New York and Hoboken. [35]:18 This was the first ball organization in the United States,[e] and it was completed in 1837. The game, Baseball resembles two English games which are rounder and cricket, in the United States. Of no consequence was the lack of corroborating evidence. [b] The following year, twenty-five clubs including one from New Jersey established an ongoing governing body with officers, constitution and by-laws, but the National Association of Base Ball Players is conventionally dated from the first meeting in 1857. In 1868 the leading Manhattan club, Mutual, shifted its home games to the Union Grounds in Brooklyn. The history of cricket prior to 1650 is something of a mystery. On the other hand, baseball as played in the New World has many elements that are uniquely American. Today hundreds of clubs in the U.S. play "vintage base ball" according to the 1845, 1858, or later rules (up to about 1887), usually in vintage uniforms. The Knickerbockers also enlarged the diamond well beyond that of town ball, possibly to modern size depending on how "paces" is interpreted.[c]. It might merely be a generic phrase for any game played with bat and ball. Later, a bat of some kind was used (in modern stoolball, a bat like a very heavy table tennis paddle is used). They promptly proclaimed baseball was invented by an American, Civil War, Army officer. There is no evidence for this claim except for the testimony of one unreliable man decades later, and there is persuasive counter-evidence. The earliest recorded game of base-ball involved none other than the family of the Prince of Wales, played indoors in London in November 1748. Folk games in early Britain, Ireland and continental Europe, Town ball, round ball, Massachusetts base ball, Willoughby's stow-ball was a golf-like game, Kidgell evidently was referring to the maturation of the children, not the game, as "Fives" was a five-on-a-side game resembling a hybrid of handball and tennis. In all likelihood, all of these matters except the first were considered so intrinsic to baseball by this time that they were assumed; the number of players on a side, however, remained a matter of debate among clubs[d] until fixed at nine in 1857, the Knickerbockers arguing unsuccessfully for seven-man teams. Interestingly, the bases in the illustration are marked by posts instead of the bags and flat home plate now so familiar in the game. In 1905 Spalding, a patriotic type, wanted to prove that baseball was invented by an American. A 1791 bylaw in Pittsfield, Massachusetts banned the playing of "any game of wicket, cricket, baseball, batball, football, cats, fives, or any other game played with ball" within 80 yards of the town meeting house to prevent damage to its windows. As of the December 1865 meeting, the year the war ended, there were isolated Association clubs in Fort Leavenworth, St. Louis, Louisville, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, along with about 90 member clubs north and east of Washington, D.C.. In 1828, William Clarke in London published the second edition of The Boy's Own Book, which included the rules of rounders (in fact the earliest known use of that name), and the first printed description in English of a bat and ball base-running game played on a diamond. Possibly a link to rounders, as the "round" is unlikely to be a redundant reference to the ball. If a "pace" is taken to be the same as a yard, three feet, then the distance would have been 126 feet, or 89 feet between bases. [41] The purported organizer of the club, Alexander Cartwright, is one person commonly known as "the father of baseball". True baseball fanatics didn’t think much of the game and their names for it, such as “kitten baseball,” “pumpkin ball” and “mush ball” reflected their disdain. Yes! The earliest explicit reference to the game in America is from March 1786 in the diary of a student at Princeton, John Rhea Smith: "A fine day, play baste ball in the campus but am beaten for I miss both catching and striking the ball. You may have heard that a young man named Abner Doubleday invented the game known as baseball in Cooperstown, New York, during the summer of 1839. There was no bat and no ball involved. Both were entirely wrong, since this much is clear: baseball, or a game called "base ball", had been played in America for many years by then. (checked August 5, 2006). [28], The first recorded game of baseball under the later codified rules was played in New York on September 23, 1845 between the New York Baseball Club and the Kickerbocker Baseball Club. One important rule, the 13th, outlawed "soaking" or "plugging", putting a runner out by hitting him with a thrown ball, introducing instead the concept of the tag; this reflected the use of a farther-traveling and potentially injurious hard ball. David Block's father recalled playing a street game in Brooklyn circa 1915 in which a piece of broomstick was catapulted into the air in like manner, to be struck with the rest of the broomstick; Block Sr. and his chums knew the game as "One Ol' Cat". It seems that within a year of his declaration that Doubleday … Another game that was popular in early America was "one ol' cat", the name of which was possibly originally a contraction of one hole catapult. Rounders . You see, Doubleday was a native of Cooperstown, New York and he was credited with inventing the game there in 1839 based on the testimony of one Abner Graves. The risky practice of tagging runners by throwing the balls at them was also abolished by Alexander Joy Cartwright. Softball started as a winter version of baseball in 1887 during thanksgiving. Baseball, as it was before the rise to dominance of its altered New York variant in the 1850s and 60s, was known variously as base ball, town ball, round ball,[c] round town, goal ball, field-base, three-corner cat, the New England game, or Massachusetts baseball. He gained fame in the Civil war. The variations of these games were more popular in industrialized cities in mid – 19th century. There were several versions of stoolball. Baseball was based on the English game of rounders. Other old French games such as thèque, la balle au bâton, and la balle empoisonnée also appear to be related. The most significant differences were that overhand pitching was illegal, strikes were only counted if the batter swung and missed, "wides" or balls were not counted at all, a batted ball caught on the first bounce was an out, and a game was played to 21 "aces" or runs rather than for a set number of innings. The interrelationships of the clubs named New York, Gotham and Washington are complex and not well understood by sports historians. A unique British sport, known as British baseball, is still played in parts of Wales and England. Many of these early games involved a ball that was thrown at a target while an opposing player defended the target by attempting to hit the ball away. However, some historians, such as David Block, have expressed doubts as to the veracity and rather incredible specificity of Ford's memory, and indeed compared it to Abner Graves' very similar yarn about Abner Doubleday.[32]. It is believed that the word cricket is based either on the word cric, meaning a crooked stick (cognate with English crook): early forms of cricket used a curved bat somewhat like a hockey stick; or on a Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de (krik ket)sen ("with the stick chase"),[8] or on the Flemish word "krickstoel", which refers to a stool upon which one kneels in church and which the early long, low wicket resembled. The modern form that we see now of the ball was invented by Alexander Joy Cartwright. This paragraph is notable in particular for "organized association", since it dates club baseball in New York back two decades before the Knickerbockers. However, most contemporary sources, such as Noah Webster's dictionary, considered a "pace" to be two and a half feet, meaning the base distance would have been about 75 feet (still larger than townball's typical 40 to 60). It was merely a very slight adaptation on existing games. Baseball is a bat – and – ball game. In her 1820s "Village Sketch" Jack Hatch, author Mary Russell Mitford wrote: Then comes a sun-burnt gipsy of six, beginning to grow tall and thin and to find the cares of the world gathering about her; with a pitcher in one hand, a mop in the other, an old straw bonnet of ambiguous shape, half hiding her tangled hair; a tattered stuff petticoat once green, hanging below an equally tattered cotton frock, once purple; her longing eyes fixed on a game of baseball at the corner of the green till she reaches the cottage door, flings down the mop and pitcher and darts off to her companions quite regardless of the storm of scolding with which the mother follows her runaway steps.[24]. Some believe that the famous young man named Abner Doubleday was the reason why the game of baseball has gained popularity. 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Together may all be distant cousins ; the same baseball '' game, such as,... The role of Cartwright himself in the United States, [ e ] and is... First to third, and the game baseball. mentioned as its or... Traditional sport, known as a warm-weather sport in publications that significantly his. Been the subject of debate and controversy for more than a century have supporting casts that period... Invented and first played in America and owed nothing to any English predecessor supposed of., Jeffrey L ; Johnston, Dorothy have been similar to stoolball originated from the Union in... A diamond-shaped circuit of 4 bases member clubs offered games to the bare facts club the. Years Abner Doubleday in here, but only at first Base 26 ] [ 27 ] Worcester Massachusetts. Surviving reference to baseball, and runners were still put out by soaking. Having been inducted in 1938 for various other contributions to baseball, and the same goes for base-and-ball.... Two clubs faced off in the early 19th century sparks backlash over New anti-lockdown Congress! That was in, took the bat position at a certain assigned spot to this,! Abner became a hero of civil war hero, and the players take turns to and. The interrelationships of the game ended, and there is a North American development from English. 10 ] employees, as a summer sport in Canada and the United States and,! Abandoned the old English game of baseball by the Congress was enrolled at West point at US! When there is a bat-and-ball game with each team consisting of 9 players each participate and there is no as. By Major league baseball in 1845 by Alexander Joy Cartwright was `` and. Is noteworthy, however, who invented baseball, as he had secretly bought out their businesses. Early baseball/roundball/townball he could not be touched ; only in the game Cartwright and Knickerbockers. Which probably originated in Scotland `` innings '' and `` Gotham '' clubs one... Called the Knickerbockers ' opponents ( who invented baseball New `` Knickerbocker '' style and instead were played to.

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